Mushroom about to embark on an adventure: a glimpse from the matsutake "Anthropocene"
Author | Luo Anqing
excerpts | Ann
For many people, matsutake may be just good food on the tongue. But clearly, things are not so simple.
fieldwork across Japan Tokyo and Kyoto, Oregon, Yunnan, China, and other places in Finnish Lapland, Santa Cruz professor of Anthropology, University of California, Luo Anqing followed by a little-known commodity supply chain, step by step, showing rare matsutake "identity translation": quietly emerged in abandoned industrial forest, fled to the mountains to seek the freedom of the Yao, Hmong and Southeast Asian pickers collect, through the fierce bidding hedge ticket market, the cumulative layers of value to enter Japan, with a strong symbolic incarnation of gifts for.
in the description of Luo Anqing, the best quality matsutake is exclusively for sale to boutique shops and fine dining restaurants, they precise positioning of the customer and proud. Buy matsutake were almost always consider the establishment of relations, because Matsutake is an ideal gift you can give to a need to maintain long-term relationships of objects. Attendant, matsutake is the "value translation": the most important role is to build relationships matsutake, which means, by matsutake devoured Bon appetit, it is too throwaway.
Luo Anqing matsutake through these re-examine history through contemporary environment, global commodity production and supply of science, wrote the "doomsday matsutake: Life on the ruins of capitalism possible," a book, I hope this little by little small mushroom, to provide a real world way of thinking. Living in a world full of uncertainty, humanity is to how to handle? I go from here? Maybe we can get an answer from the mushroom body. As Luo Anqing puts it: "Matsutake is a starting point: No matter how much I learned something, they always bring me surprise"
The following excerpt from Luo Anqing book "doomsday matsutake," a book , has been authorized publishers published.
" doomsday matsutake: life possible on the ruins of capitalism ", Luo Anqing (Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing) with, Zhang Xiaojia translation, mint experiment | East China Normal University Press, July 2020 edition.
matsutake for us to demonstrate a collaborative coexistence possible
Chung Ling High narrow Velvet umbrella stand, Shengqiu forest full of incense.
- Japanese poetry anthology Nara period of "Leaves Collection"
When the atomic bomb destroyed Hiroshima in 1945, said to be the first to emerge from the ruins of biological It is matsutake.
grasp atom is the pinnacle of human dream control nature, is also the beginning of this dream shattered. Put on Hiroshima atomic bomb changed everything. Suddenly, we began to realize that human beings have the ability to destroy the habitability of the Earth - either intentionally or by accident. As we get to know this consciousness pollution, mass extinction and climate change and deepen. Now the instability occurs in half of what the fate of the Earth: to what extent we can tolerate human disturbance? Despite been talking about sustainability, but how many of us the opportunity to hand over a livable environment for future generations includes diverse species?
Hiroshima atomic bomb to ignite another door instability: postwar unexpected development that appear contradictory. After World War II, modern outlook with the support of the US atomic bomb, looks bright. Everyone is a beneficiary, the future direction is well known. But now what? On the one hand, everywhere in the world were unable to avoid involvement in the post-war development of mechanisms to establish a global political and economic order. On the other hand, even if hope still in development, we seem to have a loss. Modernization should be allowed to communism and the capitalist world is full of job opportunities, and not just casual will work, but stable wages and benefits "standard employment" (standard employment). This work is now very rare, most people rely more on livelihood irregular. Belong in this era of irony, it is that everyone relies breath of capitalism, but almost no one in our last call "stability."
and instability coexistence is needed is not only blame those who put us in such a situation (although seemingly helpful, and I do not oppose). We may need to look around and observe this strange new world, play to our imagination in order to grasp its outline. Here it is necessary to help the matsutake. Stretched on the ground by the bombing matsutake, help us to explore the ruins have become our common home.
is a Matsutake mushroom growing wild in the forest in human disturbance. They are like rats, raccoons, cockroaches, can endure any environmental imbalance created by man. But matsutake not pests, but valuable delicacy - at least in Japan, high prices may make the world's most prized matsutake mushroom of. Matsutake has the ability to nourish the tree, can help the hostile environment in tree growth. Follow matsutake, we can find coexist in the offset environment opportunity. This is not an excuse for further destruction of the environment, but it does show us might matsutake a collaborative coexistence.
matsutake also revealed cracks in the global political economy. Over the past three decades, it has become a global commodity matsutake, after picking out of the woods across the northern hemisphere, and preservation of direct shipment to Japan. Many matsutake pickers are displaced and deprived of the rights of minorities. For example, in the US Pacific Northwest, most of the commercial harvest of matsutake, refugees from Laos and Cambodia. Due to the high priced matsutake, so no matter where it is taken from, can bring considerable revenue to the livelihoods of picking people, even the revitalization of cultures.
wild mushroom business is picking livelihood instability, lack of security of a true portrayal
However, matsutake trade is difficult to continue the development of 20th-century dream . I interviewed most of the matsutake pickers have been displaced from their homes and tell sad stories of the losses. For those who have no other way of making a living, the commercial harvest is much better than ordinary work. But in the end what kind of economy? Pickers working for themselves; no company hired them, neither wages nor benefits can only sell them privately mushroom picking. If the poor harvest year for some mushrooms, pickers make ends meet. Wild mushroom picking is the livelihood of commercial instability, lack of security of a true portrayal.
in any case, I found myself by one fragmented area the block surrounded by the life that is, a wound open mosaic combinations thereof, each of which has become more time-space trajectories rhythm and mosaic. I think that only recognize the immediate instability is a global phenomenon, in order to understand the situation of the world today. If the authorities continue to grow as a precondition to do the analysis, the heterogeneity of time and space are evident even in the eyes of ordinary participants and observers, experts are still turning a deaf ear. However, the heterogeneity theory is still in its infancy. To understand our current situation related to fragmented unpredictability, we need to re-open the imagination to explore this process together by the power of mushrooms.
About commerce: Contemporary commercial trade and the possibility to operate in the framework of capitalism. However, the 20th century scholar who teaches at capitalism, Marx follow the footsteps of internalizing this process, only to see a powerful trend, while ignoring the rest. This book would like to tell you how closely uncertain world, and think about the way wealth accumulation, which in turn can study in capitalism while avoiding adopt it gradually collapse assumptions. It does not emphasize the development and progress of capitalism what it looks like? It may seem to be a patchwork of: wealth has been able to concentrate, because the value of the block outside the plan are being generated capital appropriation.
About Ecology: humanist, the rule of human progress reinforces the assumption that nature as anti-modern and romantic space point of view. Although for 20th century scientists, progress also inadvertently framed landscape field of study. Assumptions about the expansion of the population has gradually been incorporated into the concept of biology. Today, new developments in ecology by introducing inter-species interactions and interfere with history, so that people can think from a different perspective. In this era of lowered expectations, I would like to find a change in the ecology-oriented, multi-species harmony and neither can compete without having to live together.
Although I do not want to simplify economics or ecology and other related, but previously explained there is a link between the economy seems to be important and the environment: the concentration of wealth in human history by becoming human and non-human resources invested to achieve. This history inspired investors how to make people and things are gradually alienated, that is, the ability to make independent existence, as if the wind does not matter other life in general. By alienation, and things become liquid assets; may be transferred under conditions excluding transportation distance from their living out of the world, and other assets from elsewhere to survive in the world of exchange.
This is only him who survive into part of the world is completely different, such as eating and being eaten relationship. In that case, the survival of diverse species still exists, but eliminating the alienation intertwined implicated living space. Alienation contributed to the transformation of the landscape of dreams, only to highlight some unique assets; other anything can become a weed or waste. Here, the focus seems to be winding living space inefficient, or maybe outdated. When the space of a single asset can not reproduce, this space may be abandoned. Wood has been deforested, the oil has been depleted mining, plantation soils are no longer suitable for growing crops. Plunder of assets will begin elsewhere. So, simplified alienation will produce the ruins, as well as the production assets who were abandoned space.
this ruins all over the world now, however, although that has been declared dead, but these places still viable; abandoned assets territories sometimes produce a new multi-species and multi-cultural life. In the global unstable state, in addition to finding life in the rubble outside, we have no choice.
The first step is to get back our curiosity. Hinder progress from simplified narrative, winding and rhythm fragmentation block is out there waiting to be explored. Matsutake is a starting point: No matter how much I learned something, they always bring me surprise.
appear matsutake in Japan, it is caused by human interference
Japanese matsutake written records related to the emergence of poetry for the first time in Nara era. At that time, the Internet and some aromatic matsutake has been seen as a tribute to autumn. This mushroom is common in Nara and Kyoto area, because the mountains where people gather wood for the construction of the temple, and to provide fuel for the iron and steel forging. In fact, matsutake (Tricholoma matsutake) appeared in Japan, it is man-made interference. Because it is the most common hosts are pine (Pinus densiflora), and Akamatsu likes to grow in the sun, and mineral soil due to deforestation and human formed. When Japanese is no longer re-growth forests human disturbance, broad-leaved trees obscured Akamatsu, preventing their further budding.
With the harvest throughout Japan, spreading red pine, pine mushrooms become a precious gift, it is neat to put it on a box of fern leaves carefully packaged. Nobility proud to get it. During the Edo period (1603-1868), the city merchants such as wealthy civilians, the same favorite matsutake. As autumn mushroom mark, joined the celebration of the four seasons, the fall harvest matsutake travel activity is equivalent to the General Assembly cherry blossoms in spring. Matsutake become a popular theme of poetry chant chant.
cedar smell Drum, Ying Scholar diameter.
- Orange Shu view (Akemi Tachibana) (1812-1868)
As with other Japanese poetry natural, seasonal reference help create a mood . Matsutake become a symbol of autumn, like Deer harvest month and the Imagery. Upcoming bleak winter, late autumn to bring faint lonely, nostalgic imminent, the above poem will express such a sentiment. Matsutake is an elitist enjoyment, a symbol of privilege, which is able to live in the creation of nature's ingenuity alone, the pursuit of exquisite taste. Therefore, the farmer is prepared to travel nobles, would deliberately "planted" Some matsutake (pine mushroom will cleverly inserted in between, because the natural growth of Matsutake not easily occur, which no one would oppose). Matsutake has become an ideal seasonal elements, not only in poetry, but also in the art of the tea ceremony to all the drama in the widely respected.
clouds faded, I smell the fragrant hint of mushrooms.
- Nagata farming clothes (Koi Nagata) (1900-1997)
Matsutake because of high prices and an ideal outcome reforestation ofend
Edo era ushered in the Meiji Restoration in Japan and rapid modernization. Deforestation speed, given the opportunity and pine matsutake growth. In Kyoto, matsutake become the generic term "mushroom" of. Early 20th century, matsutake is very common. But in the mid-1950s the situation changed. Farmers woodlands are cut down, replaced by timber plantations, paving the way for the development of suburbs, or move to the city's farmers abandoned. Fossil fuels to replace firewood and charcoal; farmers no longer use the rest of the forest, so these woodlands grow into dense broadleaf forest. Once covered slopes of matsutake has been less suitable now too dark ecology of the pine trees. Pine tree-lined shelter under the invasion of nematodes also killed. By the mid-1970s, matsutake a rarity in Japan.
However, that time period is the rapid development of the Japanese economy, as the Matsutake a very expensive gifts, rewards and bribes product, huge demand. Matsutake rapid price gains. Matsutake knowledge capable of growing in other parts of the world suddenly to make sense. Japan's overseas tourists and expatriates began shipped back to Japan matsutake; matsutake as importers have entered the international trade of non-Japanese flocking pickers. At first, a lot of different colors and types of matsutake mushroom is thought to be because they have the same smell.
With the fame boreal forest in matsutake, the scientific name of the species also will surge. Over the past two decades, the name is constantly the consolidation. In Eurasia, most of the matsutake are now known as "pine mushroom" (Tricholoma matsutake). In North America, pine mushroom matsutake only it seems to occur between the east and the mountains of Mexico. In western North America, local matsutake is considered to be another species, the American matsutake (T. magnivelis). However, some scientists believe that the generic term "matsutake" (matsutake) is used to refer to the best way these aromatic mushrooms, because the dynamic speciation has not been understood.
Japanese matsutake has found a way to rank around the world, but also reflected in the price level. The first time I see such a ranking, when a Japanese importer to explain, I feel a kind of an eye-opener:.. "Matsutake mushroom is white, like people of the United States, because people there are white China mushrooms are black, because the people there darker skin. Japanese people and mushrooms ranged between just right. "not all mushrooms have the same rank, but this vivid example can represent a variety of categories and global trade various forms of valuation.
At the same time, the Japanese fear of losing these woodlands, the forest brought them US spring flowers are blooming and the howling of the autumn leaves seasons. Therefore, from the beginning of the 1970s, voluntary organizations mobilized to attempt restoration of these woodlands. These teams looking for the right, and I hope the significance of their work is not just a passive type of aesthetic appeal, more to benefit the human livelihoods. Matsutake because of high prices and the ideal outcome of reforestation.
Here they took me back to the instability and chaos of human manufacture. Life seems to become more and more crowded, not only because of the aesthetic and ecological history of Japan, but also because of international relations and the capitalist trade practices. At the moment, it seems to understand the mushroom is very important.
Adapted from "matsutake end" than the original abridged modified, subheading editor added, all non-original, has been published authorized publishers.
Author | Luo Anqing
excerpts | Ann
Edit | Li Yongbo
proofreading | Liu
Sources : Xin