Deng Xiaoping sigh, if Chiang Ching-kuo alive, "China's reunification will not be so difficult and complex as it is now."
Deng Xiaoping and Chiang Ching-kuo classmate at university in Moscow, Deng Xiaoping once said, "he learned well . "after returning home for decades, they are almost the same time in power, Chiang Ching-kuo said," he worse than Mao Zedong "then they are separated by the Straits, the implementation of a reform and opening up, urged a" ten Major construction Projects ";. establish a modern power, a become "Asian Tigers." In resolving the Taiwan issue, Deng Xiaoping put forward new ideas and constantly promote significant changes in cross-strait relations. Chiang Ching-kuo special because the Communist Party of origin, he changes the attitude of the Communist Party, the two parties to cooperate and affect cross-strait relations in flux.
students period, Chiang Ching-kuo Deng Xiaoping was a" big brother "
As mentioned earlier, Chiang Ching-kuo and Deng Xiaoping once a classmate, that is, the time in 1926 to 1927. Chiang Ching-kuo is the end of 1925 to study the Sun Yat-sen in Moscow, he was 15 years old that year, just a month after his arrival here, the 21-year-old Deng Xiaoping came to this university thousands of miles away from Paris, France.
When the beginning of the semester, they are not in a class, Deng Xiaoping at the time was known as the "theoretician class" in the big seventh class, only the big class, Chiang Ching-kuo will encounter, they often sit side by side in class together. While waiting in line, Deng Xiaoping also because not tall, and Chiang Ching-kuo often stand next to the youth. Learning, Deng Xiaoping study hard, outstanding performance; Chiang Ching-kuo study is also very positive. They learn Russian at school made rapid progress, became all students in the crowd. More than learning, because Chiang Ching-kuo Deng Xiaoping's cheerful, lively, humorous talk, especially like get along with him; Deng rich organizational skills and analytical skills, which is also very much appreciated Chiang Ching-kuo, Chiang Ching-kuo Deng Xiaoping became the "Big Brother", "seniors." They also often together braved the cold wind to the opposite school squares, parks and Moscow River go for a walk, walking, chatting, Deng Xiaoping often talk about work-study program in France to participate in the CPC branch in Europe and a variety of thrilling saga, Chiang Ching-kuo always sounds relish.
at the school during the Chiang Ching-kuo also like to participate in political activities organized by the school, served as the school wall newspaper "Red Wall" of the editorial board, and he is a regular contributor, he wrote the article "revolution must first Gexin" Sun Yat-sen was a bulletin board labeled "red wall" so that the school very much appreciate. Similarly, Deng Xiaoping's writing is also very good, often to the poster writing at the kind invitation of Chiang Ching-kuo, experience and knowledge about studying in France experience. Deng Xiaoping's article dapper points clear, Chiang Ching-kuo often in the headlines published.
1926 Nian 10 9, at the seventh plenary meeting of the study group, Deng Xiaoping by the CPSU (B) candidate members full membership. And as the Kuomintang and the Communists by Chiang Ching-kuo to get along, the impression of party members feel much better than members of the Kuomintang, which may explain why so soon, Chiang Ching-kuo joined the Communist Youth League, his mission team leader Deng Xiaoping is (at that time named Deng Xixian). When Deng Xiaoping and the KMT right wing students Gu Zhengding, Gu positive Gang, Deng Wenyi debate, Chiang Ching-kuo was still standing Deng Xiaoping's side, the KMT right wing students enraged, often questioned Chiang Ching-kuo: "Ching-kuo, you are eating the KMT's rice, or eat a meal of the Communist Party? "Chiang Ching-kuo said without hesitation:" I eat rice Soviet Union "in this way, the two men during the study established a close friendship, however, history is the joker!.
the end of 1926, due to the need of revolutionary work, Deng Xiaoping ordered to return home, after which the two will no longer have not met. Later, they were to become the backbone of the KMT and the CPC. Chiang Ching-kuo in 1949 with Chiang Kai-shek to Taiwan, mainland never see him again, and with high-profile "anti-communist" into the core layer. In 1973, Chiang Kai-shek put a lot of things to him. In 1973, Deng Xiaoping comeback in overall charge of the work. Since then, the two old college buddies, has been watching each other across the Taiwan Strait.
common came to power, the two men across the sea on construction
in 1973, Chiang Ching-kuo full power, Taiwan is in the midst home and less abroad. Aspects of "diplomacy", defeat across the board, "Republic of China" represents just forced to withdraw from the United Nations, many countries (including Japan) have diplomatic relations with Taiwan, especially the United States prepared to establish diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China, which for Taiwan's political situation and society have brought a very big shock. Within Taiwan, thwart international environment in turn affect the internal economic, social instability, conflicts increase. And this year the number of immigration applications than in previous years increased by 8 times, serious capital outflows. Also in 1973, the outbreak of the first oil crisis, a global recession shook the foreign trade started by Taiwan. Chiang Ching-kuo is, under such circumstances, began to develop Taiwan's economy.
1973 Nian 12 16, Chiang Ching-kuo asked to complete the "Ten Major Construction Projects" program five years, including Freeway, Taoyuan International Airport, Taichung Port, railway electrification, Northern Railway, Suao port, steel mills, shipyards, petrochemical industry and nuclear power plants. The fundamental purpose of this program is in line with the island's transformation plan, and to establish the technical basis of modern materials, light industry to change the economic structure, improve the level of self-sufficiency in energy and raw materials, reduce the degree of external dependence. But the huge funds needed to engage in construction, need to borrow from both inside and outside, so the party is no lack of sound doubtful. But Chiang Ching-kuo iconoclastic, that "do not do today, tomorrow you'll regret it," the thesis, determined to take drastic measures to promote the construction.
later, the" ten Major construction Projects "really play an important role in the "Taiwan economic miracle" in the international economic situation is becoming better, Taiwan weather the oil crisis, the economic growth rate in 1975 rose to 4.2% in 1976, up 13.5 percent, the highest all-time record, currency expansion rate back down to 10%. In this regard, Mr. Lien Chan has said that Mr. Chiang Ching-kuo after two energy crises, knowing that Taiwan has no natural energy, to rely on self-reliance, can be said to roll up our sleeves devote every effort to promote, so he pushed the "Ten Major Construction Projects", Science Park establishment, etc., to create an economic miracle for Taiwan.
1973 years, the other side of Deng Xiaoping began in overall charge of the work, Chiang Ching-kuo this also convened an emergency meeting of senior intelligence chief, and said: "You are too optimistic assessment because you do not know Deng Xiaoping, but I know him, we studied together in the Soviet Union, he is actually more powerful than Mao Zedong, future cross-strait situation is more complicated than you think. "
Deng Xiaoping came back, in deep reflection and fully correct" foundation Cultural Revolution "on, in order to develop the economy and improve people's living standards as the core, that is, persist in taking economic construction as the central task. To achieve this core concept of the rule of Deng Xiaoping adopted a "dual track" promotion strategy: on the one hand through the implementation of bold reforms in the economic field, the direct promotion of economic development, improvement of people's living standards; on the other hand constantly in politics, science and technology, education , national defense and foreign affairs to effect change, to provide assistance and promote the steady and reliable guarantee for the smooth economic development. It can be said from 1975 to 1983, Deng Xiaoping, the focus shifted to the national work of the "four modernizations" as the center of the cause of building up, so that people's lives changed forever happen. Moreover, in 1975, led by Deng Xiaoping to rectify, in fact, it is a kind of Chinese economic reform attempt.
1978 Nian 12 on 18 May under the guidance of Deng Xiaoping, the Third Plenum of the CPC re-established "emancipating the mind, seeking truth from facts," the ideological line, stop using the "taking class struggle as the key link" in the wrong wording, has made a major decision-making center of the party and the country shifted to economic development and introduce reform and opening up, ending the smashing of the "Gang of Four "after the party and the country forward in wandering situation and achieve a great turning point of far-reaching party's history. The plenary session began to form Deng Xiaoping as the core of the second generation of central collective leadership, marked the official opening to the reform and opening up as the characteristics of the new historical period. "Mr. Xiaoping reform and opening up, not only convert the direction of the Cultural Revolution, to deepen, to enhance the overall level of people's lives, this is Era, great as Mr. Deng Xiaoping spoke of reform and opening up of the line must be a hundred years." . Mr. Lien Chan said, "did not waver, today we look at the economic and trade development of the continent, economic growth, we can say everything is among the best."
two men on construction and development, on the Taiwan issue, as Chiang Ching-kuo and Chiang Kai-shek, and his adherence to the" one China "stance. He mentioned several times on different occasions: "the two sides is the root of political differences with the blood Could have been able to make the Taiwan Strait become a barrier and from ethnic divide you rebuild a free, democratic, unified China, is neither a dream nor fantasy.?." <": start text-align" p style =>
before and after the establishment of diplomatic relations, the two men wrestling on the Taiwan issue
before the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and the United States, the relationship between Taiwan and the United States in the 1950s it is relatively stable. December 1954, in Washington, the Taiwan authorities and the US government signed the "US-Taiwan Mutual Defense Treaty." For the signing of the treaty, Premier Zhou Enlai issued a statement: "Chiang 'Mutual Defense Treaty' is simply illegal and invalid", "Taiwan is Chinese territory, the Chinese people must liberate Taiwan ...... complete their homeland completely unity. "60 years, with the Sino-Soviet split and the United States need to find a neighbor and able to contain the Soviet Union, in order to help achieve the interests of the United States in the Far East, China-US cooperation opportunities arise, so we also had 70s Kissinger's visit to China to explore the way, soon after President Nixon's visit to China.
1976 Nian 11 Yue Carter was elected US president. At this time, Deng Xiaoping Carter should look like Nixon with China's power in the Soviet Union to compete with the strategy. So in August 1977, while Carter sent Secretary of State Vance's visit to Beijing, he met Deng Xiaoping handy bluntly pointed out that Taiwan issue is the key to Sino-US relations: "If you want to solve the problem, without more ado is three: diplomatic relations, withdrawal, the denunciation. in order to take care of reality, we can allow to keep people exchanges between the uS and Taiwan unofficial As for the reunification of China, or the Chinese people themselves to resolve. "
1978 May, Carter accepted the Chinese three basic conditions on the normalization of Sino-US relations and actions during the year, in July, the United States on the issue of diplomatic relations began the arduous negotiations. Negotiations, Deng Xiaoping made a historic decision to adjust the Taiwan Affairs policy, that "We must liberate Taiwan" to "Taiwan's return to the motherland and realize reunification." On the eve of December 13, 1978, negotiations on Sino-US relations into the "negotiated" a substantive stage, Deng Xiaoping given instructions to "consult the report on the normalization of Sino-US relations in the sixth round of talks," the foreign ministry review: "To clear : uS can be expressed desire for a peaceful solution, but we also want to express what time the same way, in what way to resolve Taiwan's return to the motherland is entirely China's internal affairs. "here, Deng Xiaoping personally with written form established" to resolve Taiwan's return to the motherland. "the new formulation. After the Sino-US communiques and the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Third Plenary Session communique also "Taiwan back to the motherland, to achieve reunification," the new formulation.
news about Sino-US relations, the Chiang Ching-kuo at December 16, 1978 did not realize, when America's "ambassador" in Taiwan Chiang Ching-kuo asked to see Anchorage Chi temporary to inform the United States will work with China to establish diplomatic relations at the New Year's message for the coming year, Chiang Ching-kuo to this end is very angry, and made it clear that there will be serious consequences. He said, "The United States recognizes the government of People's Republic of China is the sole legal government of China, and recognize that the CCP mentioned only one China and Taiwan is part of China's position, in fact, tantamount to Taiwan to mainland China, the United States such an approach not only does not honest, people will lose confidence in the Republic of China to the United States. " For Chiang Ching-kuo's response so tough, some think, mainly because Taiwan has the support of the United States, but also believe that Chiang Ching-kuo, developed by the international community called "Asian Tigers" of Taiwan's economy, this can be compared with the mainland Chinese Communist Party winning or losing.
1979 Sino-US diplomatic relations, marking the one-China principle has been widely recognized by the international community, they constitute a final settlement an indispensable condition of the Taiwan issue, our party and the government to begin the implementation of "peaceful reunification and one country," the basic principle of the 1979 external conditions.
However, after the establishment of diplomatic relations, the United States has not changed our stance to block resolution of the Taiwan issue. April 1979, the United States through the "Taiwan Relations Act", in flagrant violation of the Sino-US communique in principle on the Taiwan issue. In this regard, Deng Xiaoping met with US Senate delegation pointed out that: "the political foundation of Sino-US relations is only one China, and now this foundation is disturbed, China for the United States Congress passed the" Taiwan Relations Act "is not satisfied one problem most essential of this bill is not actually recognize only one China "
Taiwan before and after the issue of the establishment of diplomatic relations, according to the 2013 US Department of State the first time was released secret documents show that in the course of discussions with the mainland United States established diplomatic relations, the United States is very concerned about whether the Taiwan leader Chiang Ching-kuo will declare independence. July 1977, US Secretary of State Vance submitted a memorandum to mention the name of "Taiwan independence results and the possibility of" President Carter, the People's Republic of China and the "Republic of China" agree "Taiwan is a province of China," the basic principle, and "Taiwan independence" will change the legal status of Taiwan, cut off relations with the mainland. Vance believes that the short term is unlikely Taiwan declares independence, but the United States can not completely exclude the possibility that, if the normalization of Sino-US relations because let Taiwan feel abandoned, I am afraid, to stimulate their independent way to go. Vance said that military action if Taiwan declares independence, the United States will be a heavy blow to China policy, while Beijing will put this reckoning head to the United States, other countries may sever oppression and Taiwan economic relations and may even take "the hostage Islands is the easiest approach, or declared a naval blockade." In this regard, "Liberty Times" said that the United States in assessing the possibility of "Taiwan independence" completely ignored Taiwan was already budding indigenous political movement, and that the interior does not have any meaningful Taiwan "Taiwan independence" pressure. The United States opposes "Taiwan independence", not affected by some kind of single factor, but considering the reaction of the Chinese mainland, US strategic interests as well as the island's Chiang Ching-kuo authorities may move to other factors.
Deng Xiaoping on" peace offensive "Chiang Ching-kuo gradually changed
for the "Taiwan's return to the motherland, reunification of the motherland." In 1978, Deng Xiaoping first conversation involving the concept of "one country, two systems", which reveals the unity of the motherland from the reality of the Chinese government to respect the reality of Taiwan and the initial thinking foreign investment protection. But after the establishment of diplomatic relations in 1979, Chiang Ching-kuo ruled Taiwan authorities forced the then relatively unfavorable circumstances, mainland China adopted a "three noes policy" and that "three noes" did not deny reunification. The other side of Deng Xiaoping, then to Chiang Ching-kuo will open a wave of "peace offensive."
1979 New Year's Day, under the personal command of Deng Xiaoping, China stopped the shelling of Kinmen, Kinmen and other small islands. That same year, China published the "Message to Compatriots in Taiwan", proposed to open cross-strait economic and trade, travel and postal service. At this time, Liao Chengzhi also published an open letter to Chiang Ching-kuo, the KMT proposed third collaboration, and expressed willingness to visit Taiwan. However, Chiang Ching-kuo prevailing at the time "three noes" policy environment, the response has been very keen and careful hand, he declined to Liao's visit, to maintain a certain distance from the mainland, but on the other hand said: Beijing is now keen to encourage both sides between expand economic, social, cultural exchanges, in the long run, Taiwan must be more good than harm. If the people on both sides travel, trade prudent development, will be to enhance the image and influence of Taiwan in the whole of China.
Later, with the passage of time, Chiang Ching-kuo cross-strait talks that the time has slowly matured, but the then Taiwan and the mainland has not been a direct communication channel, so this Chiang Ching-kuo "middleman" role entrusted to the Prime Minister of Singapore Lee Kuan Yew, Lee Kuan Yew will have a time to Taipei, Chiang Ching-kuo and are talking to several hours apart, to exchange each other, perceptions of China cross-strait issues. Chiang Ching-kuo said: Lee Kuan Yew understanding on cross-strait issues, in-depth than anyone else.
1976 and 1980, Lee Kuan Yew has twice come to China, Deng Xiaoping and his candor, but also enriched the content of the conversation widely, but most notably, Lee sent a message to the Chiang Ching-kuo Deng Xiaoping please him. Deng Xiaoping said: "I would like to ask you to pass a Chiang Ching-kuo, tell him I am willing to meet with him to talk about the settlement of the Taiwan issue I have with Chiang Ching-kuo study at Zhongshan University classmates Well, what can not. to talk about. "content of Deng Xiaoping messenger is very short, but the tone of his conversation is full of respect for the Chiang Ching-kuo, goodwill and expectations. At that time, Deng Xiaoping has successfully solved the return of Hong Kong event, for settlement of the Macao issue also proposed the "one country two systems" policy, he opened the door to look forward to in his lifetime to solve the Taiwan issue. Moreover, Deng Xiaoping put forward just sent a message to the Chiang Ching-kuo to see a face, talk, do not set any preconditions, we can see he is very sincere.
1980 Nian 5 may 14, Deng Xiaoping once again sent a message to the Chiang Ching-kuo, when meeting with Japanese national policy seminar, he said," we are more than seventy years of age, in our generation to solve problems, history will give us for healing "; the same year on September 8, Deng Xiaoping met with Chen Shubo in, that he was familiar with Jiang Weiguo, then he said to him, wanted him to tell his brother Chiang Wei asked, I put the Taiwan issue is the truth.
In addition someone take Deng Xiaoping, then also do some specific things to promote feelings, because he knows a big dutiful son Chiang Ching-kuo, Chiang to repair the tomb is one. Chiang's grave destroyed in the Cultural Revolution to, in the center got the feedback after the 1981 decision of its repairs. After the repair is completed, when Xikou cemetery refurbished pictures were secretly sent to Taiwan, "Presidential Palace" Chiang Ching-kuo did not respond. However, this does not mean Taiwan and the Chinese Communist Party still reluctant dealings. It is understood that since 1981 its cronies Chiang Ching-kuo dark Xu Shen Cheng and his party went to the mainland, he already had a relatively clear understanding of the true meaning of peace top party leadership. Although Chiang Ching-kuo's deteriorating physical condition, but he also wanted to when he was still alive to solve the problem of reunification of the motherland, looking for channels and CCP reconciliation.
1981 Nian 8 26, when Deng Xiaoping met in Beijing with Hong Kong and Taiwan celebrities, for the first time publicly that " 'one country two systems" concept to solve the problem of Taiwan, Hong Kong September 1981. May 30, Ye Jianying made "about the nine principles and policies of peaceful reunification of Taiwan," Deng Xiaoping said:. "nine principles put forward in the name of Ye Jianying, in fact, is the 'one country, two systems'. "Deng Xiaoping also on the" one country two systems "unified model, provide a legal framework. He instructed the revised" People's Republic of China Constitution ", endow Taiwan and Hong Kong" Special Administrative Region "special status." Special Administrative Region "enjoy" a high degree of autonomy ", that they existing economic, political, social and judicial systems have control over.
1982 Nian 7 24, under Deng Xiaoping's decision, Liao Chengzhi published an open letter to Mr. Chiang Ching-kuo previously, Chiang Ching-kuo in tribute to his father, Chiang Kai-shek wrote in an article: "spirit of the father eager to be back in their homes and with their ancestors," said he, "should filial heart, expanded to national feelings, to the beloved nation, dedicated to country. "Deng Xiaoping's instructions to Liao Ching-kuo wrote to Xiaoyidayi, Chen powerful, moving to feelings. open letter that" cooperation is beneficial to the country, it certainly hurt the ethnic divide vitality. "" Three cooperation, Xie big blame. "" Try to count your party, take advantage of that if you would, take the historical responsibility, resolutely peace talks and reach national unity, the two parties long-term coexistence, mutual supervision, a total of the great cause of rejuvenating the Chinese nation. Otherwise, the breeding ground of the Board, how can they protect themselves. Insight, and this has been considered. Related to the rise and fall of the Kuomintang must continue, think again look younger brother. "
1985 March third Session of the sixth National People's Congress officially" one country two systems "as a basic state policy of China, so far , Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese government of "one country two systems" to solve the Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao issue and realize the formal establishment of a unified national basic policy. June 1985, Continental began serialization in a magazine Chiang Ching-kuo penned the old unit, describes some of the friendly and past articles .11 month, Lee Kuan Yew first public visit to Taiwan. he entered the mainland China from Taipei to the third degree, the return trip seems to secrecy at the Taipei stop, before returning to Singapore. Dec. 5, when Chiang Ching-kuo and David Ding met, deliberately casually mention, recently Taipei after Lee Kuan Yew, Deng Xiaoping had conveyed the greetings of Italy after Lee Kuan Yew to visit soon, one day Ma Shuli read a report on the development of mainland China to Chiang Ching-kuo, Chiang Ching-kuo waved, interrupted his topic:. "Do not ever say 'bandits' say 'Communist' can be friends! "
Chiang Ching-kuo decided to implement political reforms
for the issue of cross-strait relations, the Taiwan issue for Mr. Chiang Ching-kuo been thinking about this, Mr. Lien Chan also said, speaking in his later years when Mr. Chiang Ching-kuo, who is Chinese. people, but also the people of Taiwan. a lot of people stunned for a moment, but in fact on behalf of his inner fears, his worries mainland and Taiwan common future, how to walk. the summer of 1986, Lee Kuan Yew visited Taiwan for three days, and Chiang Ching-kuo in private long talk, this time, Chiang Ching-kuo clear to Lee Kuan Yew, for the transformation of the political system in Taiwan, he already had plans and new ideas holistic.
1987 years many changes took place in Taiwan, where the most dramatic when pushed October 14, 1987, following the KMT Kaifangdangjin, after the press restrictions, and then the full liberalization of people on the island to the mainland to travel, move, tantamount to betrayal of the Chiang dynasty whole anti-communist struggle. but Chiang Ching-kuo was satisfied, in fact, this is his part to encourage the evolution of the internal policy of the mainland. he subordinates, said: "do not need to worry about. Look to the mainland, Taiwan can make people understand the situation in the continent; mainland people can also understand the situation in Taiwan. "The next two months, Taiwan residents to apply to the mainland to visit relatives there are tens of thousands of people in this situation and Chiang Ching-kuo's decision to follow the trend of the times, contributed
KMT secretary Li Huan publicly announced in October, the KMT's mainland policy is no longer seeking to replace the Communist Party of China, but rather to promote "political reform, freedom of expression and economic liberalization," the island's right, is livid - KMT headed Central Committee Secretary-General, has abandoned the historical responsibility of the party to overthrow the Communist Party! However, Chiang Ching-kuo of the seven Seas Village chiefs came to complain, said the people on the mainland have the right to choose whether you want the Communist Party, the Kuomintang, or other parties to preside over the government.
1988 New Year's day, under the direction of Chiang Ching-kuo, Taiwan's formal end of newspapers limit card (maintained at 29), limit Zhang (maintained at 3 day off Zhang) ban; within a few days, there are about 200 new publications, apply to the relevant authority to register the streets immediately appeared in many emerging Illustrated same time, there are more than 60 political groups for registration of political parties and later, including democracy. progressive Party including a total of 20 political organizations was adopted, formally established political parties.
January 12, Ma Ying-jeou presided over the drafting by the end of the mainland Taiwan's political process control after the draft was adopted. jeou ready the next day audience with Chiang Ching-kuo, report the good news. but on the 13th afternoon, the "president" suddenly around forever. Deng learned of the death of Chiang Ching-kuo, once hosted the Politburo expand meeting, heard a report from the Taiwan affairs Office and Taiwan working group. Deng Xiaoping said, "China is a unified world events. When Chiang Ching-kuo alive, China's reunification would not be so difficult and complex as it is now. Kuomintang and the Communist Party in the past there have been two cooperation, I do not believe there will be no third cooperation between the KMT. "" Unfortunately, the country die too soon! "This is the last of nine characters, meaningful, perhaps Chiang Ching-kuo can live several more years, Taiwan is not able to solve the problem, perhaps.
later, a scholar of this continent in the evaluation of Chiang Ching-kuo, said:" sometimes, especially in the critical moment, a key figure in a political position, his orientation, selection can often determine the course of history. "And at the same time, new ideas mainland Chinese leaders in sessions on resolving the Taiwan issue constantly raised, continued to promote cross-strait relations with the new changes
(reference article: China Taiwan, People, Sina, Guangming, CCTV network, world wide web," recalled Deng Xiaoping . ", etc.)