The rise and fall of human civilization (001) human origins and evolution (a)
humans originated in Africa. About 1,000 years ago, around the world distribution of a large apes. Only African apes evolved into humans. Power is evolutionary changes in the environment. About 10 million years ago, crustal movement led to the emergence of the Great Rift Valley of East Africa. Great Rift Valley and the East African highlands gradually become arid. Deforestation, changes to the sparse savanna. Part of apes gradually began to move toward the ground, the trees and the ground began amphibious life.
about 700 million years ago, the first human, Ardipithecus population began to appear in East Africa. They often walk upright in the ground, but still keep the habit in the tree of life. Their teeth and pelvis, unlike apes, but more like humans. After millions of years of evolution, an evolution of the ape population has become Australopithecus. There are many different populations of Australopithecus, which is more well-known apes Eerfanan. Population of Australopithecus evolved in a near ethnic groups, in addition to an evolved Homo sapiens populations. Paranthropus Homo sapiens populations and populations living together in Africa a few hundred thousand years, Paranthropus became extinct population, only Homo sapiens populations continue to survive, to be the only human species. We all are descendants of modern Homo sapiens populations.
Homo sapiens populations include different human Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, Neanderthals and modern Homo sapiens and so on. The earliest Homo sapiens population race is probably Homo habilis, Homo habilis appeared about more than 200 million years ago, Homo sapiens population from more than 200 million years ago began to evolve until about 20 million years ago, Homo sapiens found in Africa . Modern Homo sapiens is the ancestor of all human beings we now live.
2. Ardipithecus population
about a thousand years ago, due to crustal intense activity, flat eastern Africa into a big crack Valley and plateau. Since the barrier mountains, the Great Rift Valley and the East African highlands gradually becomes dry, dense forests becoming mixed forest and grassland areas.
part of life in the forest of apes, in order to adapt to environmental changes, and gradually began to trees and ground amphibious life. On the ground, they take the form of bipedal walking. Bipedal walking the way, the liberation of the forelimb apes, they are getting used to carry things and use the tools on the go. Then walk upright, good at using the tools of mankind was born. Anthropologists to these earliest human named Ardipithecus. Ardipithecus first appeared in about seven million years ago. In more than four years ago, Ardipithecus become a mature species. To more than three million years ago, part of Ardipithecus evolved into Australopithecus, Ardipithecus gradually replaced by other Australopithecus, slowly died out.
according to anthropologists, human fossils found, recovered the body shape of Ardipithecus. Ardipithecus short stature, adult Ardipithecus height in about two meters. Their bodies have adapted to walking upright, such as pelvic structures. Ardipithecus pelvis become very wide, similar to humans. And modern apes such as chimpanzees, completely different. Their hands more flexible. Good at using a variety of tools such as rocks and branches. Ardipithecus that the earliest humans is still relatively weak, they are omnivorous animals, fruits and other plant-based foods, occasionally eating a dead animal.
Ardipithecus lived in the trees, picking food is convenient, you can also prevent ground attacks beast. Security on the ground, they can walk long distances to get away food. On the ground, can not be considered to ape quick walking, but upright manner, to facilitate their look around. Hands liberation, and can carry large amounts of food, thereby greatly enhancing the efficiency of food collected. This is what they survived in the forest steppe zone of important reasons.
Another important reason is that community cooperation mode change. According to archaeologists estimate that Ardipithecus group has been formed monogamy. In other words, the difference between internal groups with small families. Emergence of family, reducing the internal groups to compete for spouses arising from competition. More internal unity. Ardipithecus adult men and women long life together, make up a small family, men begin to take responsibility for their families. Father of the addition, the mothers have more resources, raise their offspring, so children's survival rate has improved significantly. Breeding colony become more successful.
As the first human to ape the success of life for millions of years in East Africa. Become an important part of human evolution.
3. Australopithecus population
about 370 million years ago, a population of Ardipithecus evolved into Australopithecus. Australopithecus body has fully adapted to life on the ground, their body shape completely into upright walking pattern, especially the foot, for walking, not suitable for climbing trees.
Australopithecus major events on the ground, in order to ensure safety, Australopithecus way generally large group activities. They make good use of sticks and stones and other tools. Australopithecus defense enemy sticks become a powerful weapon.
While fear in the face of ferocious cat, Australopithecus very fragile, but they still tenaciously survive. Australopithecus are omnivores, they are mainly vegetarian, occasionally captures insects, insects and other protein-rich foods. Maybe they will eat dead animals.
about 200 million years ago, Australopithecus evolved into Homo habilis in a, probably Homo habilis is the earliest Homo sapiens population. And compared to Australopithecus, Homo habilis was not stronger, but smarter, they first began chipped stone tools, stone processing may also use a wooden stick. Homo habilis is considered the first human to make stone tools, they opened the Stone Age human beings.
Homo habilis stone is still rough, anthropologists found the oldest stone tools in Africa Aodu Wei canyon, it is usually called the stone as the Aodu Wei stone.
Homo habilis intelligence have developed, they can be harmonized, using cunning strategy, competition for food from other animals to the mouth.
Homo habilis has also developed a new food source, they crack through bone with stones, draw bone marrow in the bone, with important nutrients. For early human food resources are scarce, and the bone marrow is a rare food.